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psychology chapter one
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Terms in this set (52)
speech and physical movement are examples of
observable behavior
remembering and thinking which cannot be directly observed
mental processes
views physiological hardware (especially the brain and the nervous system) as the major determinants of behavior and mental processing
biological perspective
emphasizes how mental processes, such as perception, memory and problem solving, work and impact behavior
- addresses how memory retrieval is facilitated
cognitive perspective
can explain how we learn fast and other emotional responses, taste aversions and certain behaviors
classical conditioning
involves the relationship between our behavior and its environmental consequences
operant conditioning
research methods used by psychologists
descriptive methods, correlational studies and experimental research
tendency after learning an outcome to be overconfident in the ability to predict it
bias
which perspective is best?
no perspective is better than the other because all perspectives are complementary
observational techniques, case studies and survey research are examples of
descriptive methods of research
three types of descriptive research
observational techniques, case studies and survey research
observational techniques for descriptive research
observational techniques (behavior of interest is directly observed), naturalistic observation (behavior being observed occurs in its natural setting without researcher intervention and participant observation (observers become part of the group being observed)
individual is studied in depth over extended period of time, results of case studies cannot be generalized and cause effect statements based the findings of a ____ cannot be made
case studies
-correlation coefficient
- two variables measured to determine if they are related or how well either one predicts the other
correlation studies
uses questionaries and interviews to collect information about the behavior, beliefs and attitudes of particular groups of people
survey research
any factor that can take on more than one value
variable
demonstrates the type and the strength of the relationship between two variables
- ranges in values from -1.0 +1.0
- uses a plus or a minus sign to convey the type of relationship
correlation coefficient
indicates a direct relationship between two variables
- low scores on one variable tends to be paired with a low score on the other variable
positive correlation
-shows an inverse relationship between two variables
-low scores on one variable tend to be paired with high scores
negative correlation
-second part of the correlation coefficient that ranges from 0 to 1
- zero indicates no relationship
absolute value
visual depiction of correlation data
scatterplots
key aspect of experimental research that allows the researcher to make cause and effect statements about the experimental results
researcher control
for influence of possible third variables
- for any possible influence due to individual characteristics of the participants
experimenter control
Researcher manipulates one or more independent variables and measures their effect on one or more dependent variables while controlling other potentially relevant variables
experiment
determines the prediction to be tested about the cause and effect between two variables in an experiment
hypothesis
hypothesized cause; manipulated by experimenter
independent variable
hypothesized variable; measured by the experimenter
dependent variable
exposed to the independent variable in an experiment
experimental group
not exposed to the independent variable in an experiment
control group
believes they are receiving treatment but not
placebo group
Control measure in which neither the experimenter nor the participants know which participants are in the experimental and control groups
Measure controls for experimenter expectations
double blind procedure
indicate the probability that results of a study are due to random variation (chance)
inferential statistical analyses
significant finding is one that has a probability less than 0.05 (1/20) that is due to chance
-significant finding does not ensure that the result has practical significance or value in our everyday world
statistical significance
Statistical technique that combines the results of a large number of studies on one experimental question into one analysis to arrive at an overall conclusion
Conclusion is considered much stronger evidence than the results of an individual study in answering an experimental question
meta analysis
used to describe the data of research study in a concise fashion
descriptive statistics
indicate the probability that the result of the study are due to random variations
frequency distributions
designed to summarize a set of data with a single score
central tendency
numerical average for a distribution of score
mean
score that is positioned in the middle of the distribution of scores when scores are listed from lowest to highest
median
most frequently occurring score in a distribution of scores
mode
- most commonly used measure of central tendency
-used to analyze data in many inferential statistical tests
- can be distorted by extremely high or extremely low scores because it uses all scores in its computation
mean
designed to provide an idea of how scattered a set of scores tend to be
measures of variability
difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution of scores
range
average extent to which the scores vary from the mean of the distribution
standard deviation
organizes the data in a score distribution so that the frequency of each score can be determined
frequency distribution
types of distribution
normal and skewed
-Mean, median, and mode are all equal because the normal distribution is symmetric about its center
-Percentage of scores falling within a certain number of standard deviations of the mean is set
main aspects of normal distribution
The percentage of scores below a specific score in a distribution of scores
percentile rank
Asymmetric frequency distribution in which some unusually high scores distort the mean to be greater than the median
skewed distributions
right skewed is also called
positively skewed distribution
left skewed is also called
negatively skewed distribution
occurs for the means of skewed distributions because unusually high or low scores distort the mean
- consequently with a skewed distribution, median should be used because atypical scores in the distribution do not distort the mean
distortions
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